Digital-Desert : Mojave Desert
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Points of Interest

Monuments

Includes; San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, Mono, Los Angeles & Riverside counties.

Some outlier monuments included as related.

San Bernardino County

NO. 42 SAN BERNARDINO ASISTENCIA - This branch of San Gabriel Mission was constructed about 1830 on the San Bernardino Rancho. During the 1840s its buildings were used by Jose del Carmen Lugo as part of his rancho grant. After its sale to the Mormons, it was occupied by Bishop Tenney in the 1850s and by Dr. Benjamin Barton in the 1860s. Its restoration was completed in 1937 by the Works Progress Administration, assisted by the San Bernardino County Historical Society.
Location: 26930 Barton Rd, E of Nevada St, Redlands

NO. 43 THE ZANJA Spanish missionaries introduced the principle of irrigation in San Bernardino Valley, thus opening the way to settlement. Franciscan fathers engineered, and Indians dug, this first ditch, or 'zanja,' in 1819-20. It supported the San Bernardino Asistencia, the Rancho San Bernardino, then pioneer ranches and orchards and finally Redlands' domestic water supply.
Location: Sylvan Park, University St, Redlands

NO. 44 SITE OF MORMON STOCKADE - On this site in 1839 was built the first house in San Bernardino, the home of Jose del Carmen Lugo, one of the grantees of the San Bernardino Rancho. In 1851 a stockade of logs was built here as a protection against the Indians, in it more than a hundred families lived for over a year.
Location: San Bernardino County Courthouse, Arrowhead Ave and Court St, San Bernardino

NO. 95 GUACHAMA RANCHERIA - Guachama Rancheria, renamed San Bernardino on May 20, 1810 by Francisco Dumetz, became the San Bernardino Rancho of the Mission San Gabriel in 1819. The adobe administration building stood 70 yards north of this spot, an enramada served as the chapel, and a zanja was constructed to bring water from the mountains for irrigation. Control by mission fathers ended in 1834.
Location: 25894 Mission Rd, SW of high powerline towers on N side of st, Redlands

NO. 96 MORMON ROAD - When the Mormons came to the San Bernardino valley in 1851 they needed suitable lumber to construct their homes and stockade. To bring in lumber from the mountains they built an 11-mile wagon road that required about a thousand days' labor to complete.
Location: Waterman Canyon, State Hwy 18 (P.M. 17.15), 0.5 mi W of Crestline

NO. 121 AGUA MANSA - Don Juan Bandini, owner of the Jurupa Rancho, donated parts of his rancho to a group of New Mexican colonists in 1845 on the understanding that they would aid in repelling Indian raids on his stock. The community was named Agua Mansa-Gentle Water-and was prosperous until 1862, when a great flood suddenly swept down the Santa Ana, carrying away the village of adobe buildings and covering the fields with sand and gravel. The village was rebuilt on higher ground, but never regained its former prosperity.
Location: Agua Mansa Cemetery, 270 E Agua Mansa Rd, Colton

NO. 573 SYCAMORE GROVE - Sycamore Valley ranch, formerly called Sycamore Grove, was first camp of the Mormon pioneers. Captain Jefferson Hunt, Amasa Lyman, Charles C. Rich, David Seely, and Andrew Lytle stopped here in June 1851.
Location: Glen Helen Regional Park, 2555 Devore Rd, 0.7 mi W of Devore

NO. 576 SANTA FE AND SALT LAKE TRAIL MONUMENT - Erected in 1917 in honor of the brave pioneers of California who traveled the Santa Fe and Salt Lake Trail in 1849 by Sheldon Stoddard, Sydney P. Waite, John Brown, Jr., George Miller, George M. Cooley, Silas C. Cox, Richard Weir, and Jasper N. Corbett.
Location: S end Wagon Train Rd, SE corner I-15 (P.M. 21.4) and State Hwy 138, 17 mi N of San Bernardino

NO. 577 MORMON TRAIL MONUMENT - In June 1851, 500 Mormon pioneers came through this pass to enter the San Bernardino Valley, where they established a prosperous community.
Location: W Cajon Canyon, State Hwy 138 (P.M. 10. 7), 3.6 mi W of I-15, 20 mi N of San Bernardino

NO. 578 STODDARD-WAITE MONUMENT - This monument marks the western extension of the Santa Fe Trail traveled by Sheldon Stoddard and Sydney P. Waite in 1849.
Location: Elsie Arey May Nature Center NW corner of I-15 (P.M. 20.0) and Cleghorn Rd, 16 mi N of San Bernardino

NO. 579 DALEY TOLL ROAD MONUMENT - The Daley Road, built by Edward Daley and Co. in 1870, was one of the first roads into the San Bernardino Mountains that could accommodate wagons. It was a toll road until 1890, when it became a county road. Now a Forest Service fire road, it is not open to the public.
Location: On State Hwy 18 (P.M. 23.3), at Daley Canyon Rd, 0.6 mi E of Rim Forest

NO. 617 FORT BENSON - This is the site of an adobe fortification erected about 1856-57 by the 'Independent' faction in a dispute with the Mormons over a land title. The fort was maintained for about a year. This also is the site of the Indian village of Jumuba, and Jedediah Smith camped here in January 1827.
Location: 10600 Hunts Lane, Colton

NO. 618 GARCES-SMITH MONUMENT - This monument marks an old Indian trail, the Mojave Trail, used by Father Garces in March 1776 on his trip from Needles to San Gabriel. The same trail was used by Jedediah Smith in 1826 on his first trip through San Bernardino Valley.
Location: Call San Bernardino National Forest, Cajon Ranger District, 714/887-2576 for permission to view plaque and directions

NO. 619 HOLCOMB VALLEY - Southern California's largest gold rush followed the discovery of rich placer deposits by William F. Holcomb and Ben Choteau on May 4, 1860. Miners rushed to the valley and established boom towns. Belleville, the largest, rivaled San Bernardino in population and almost became the county seat. Violence and hangings were common in this remote valley. Over time, major placer and quartz mining declined although some activity continues today. Belleville Holcomb Valley, on Rd No. 3N16, 4.3 mi NW of Big Bear City.
Location: Plaque at Big Bear Valley Historical Society Museum in Big Bear City Park on Green Way Dr

NO. 622 HARRY WADE EXIT ROUTE - After getting to Death Valley with the ill-fated 1849 caravan, Harry Wade found this exit route for his ox-drawn wagon and thereby saved his life and the lives of his wife and children. At this point the Wade party came upon the known Spanish Trail to Cajon Pass.
Location: 4 mi S of Death Valley National Monument on State Hwy 127 (P.M. 29.8), 30 mi N of Baker

NO. 725 OLD BEAR VALLEY DAM - In 1884 Frank Brown built an unusual dam here to supply irrigation water for the Redlands area. The single-arch granite dam formed Big Bear Lake, then the world's largest man-made lake. Engineers claimed the dam would not hold, and declared it "The Eighth Wonder of the World" when it did. The old dam is usually underwater because of the 20-foot higher dam built 200 feet west in 1912. Location:W edge of Big Bear Lake, intersection of State Hwys 18 and 38, 4.8 mi W of Big Bear Lake Village

NO. 717 THE ANGELES NATIONAL FOREST The first national forest in the State of California and second in the United States, Angeles National Forest was created by proclamation of President Benjamin Harrison on December 20, 1892. The first name given to the forest, "San Gabriel Timberland Reserve," was changed to "San Gabriel National Forest March 4, 1907 and then to "Angeles National Forest" on July 1, 1908. The majority of the Forest is within Los Angeles County, with small sections extending into San Bernardino and Ventura counties.
Location: San Gabriel Mtns, Clear Creek vista point, State Hwy 2 (P.M. 32.8), 8.3 mi N of I-210, La Canada Flintridge

NO. 737 CHIMNEY ROCK - Conflicts between Indians and white settlers over the rich lands of the San Bernardino Mountains culminated in the battle at Chimney Rock on February 16, 1867. Although the Indians defended themselves fiercely, they were forced to retreat into the desert. In the years following, the Indians' traditional mountain food gathering areas were lost to white encroachment.
Location: On State Hwy 18 (P.M. 76.9) at Rabbit Springs Rd, 3.2 mi W of Lucerne Valley

NO. 774 SEARLES LAKE BORAX DISCOVERY - John Searles discovered borax on the nearby surface of Searles Lake in 1862. With his brother Dennis, he formed the San Bernardino Borax Mining Company in 1873 and operated it until 1897. The chemicals in Searles Lake-borax, potash, soda ash, salt cake, and lithium-were deposited here by the runoff waters from melting ice-age glaciers, John Searles' discovery has proved to be the world's richest chemical storehouse, containing half the natural elements known to man.
Location:
Roadside rest area, Trona Rd at Center St, Trona

NO. 781 NATIONAL OLD TRAILS MONUMENT - An old Indian trail, still visible in some places, ran roughly parallel to the Colorado River on the California side. This is the route followed by Garces and his Mojave guides in 1776 and by Jedediah Smith in 1826.
Location: On shoulder of NW corner of Colorado River Bridge, North K St, Needles

NO. 782 TOWN OF CALICO - The Calico Mining District, which had a peak population of 3,000, produced between $13 and $20 million in silver and $9 million in borate minerals between 1881 and 1907. On April 6, 1881, several claims were located that formed the Silver King, largest mine in the district. Profitable mining of silver in the area ceased in 1896.
Location: 4 mi NW of I-15 on Ghost Town Rd, Yermo

NO. 859 VON SCHMIDT STATE BOUNDARY MONUMENT - This boundary monument, a cast iron column erected in 1873, marks the southern terminus of the California-Nevada State boundary established by A. W. Von Schmidt's 1872-73 survey. Von Schmidt's line, the first officially recognized oblique state line between California and Nevada, erred slightly, the boundary was later corrected to the present line, 3/4 mile to the north.
Location: On E side of Pew Rd (River Rd), 2.6 mi S of state line, 14 mi N of Needles

NO. 892 HARVEY HOUSE - In 1893 Fred Harvey, founder and operator of the Santa Fe Harvey Houses, took over the operation of all hotel and restaurants on the Santa Fe line, including the one at Barstow (then Waterman Junction) constructed in 1885. In 1908 this Harvey House burned, and in 1910-13 the present Spanish-Moorish structure designed by architect Mary E. J. Coulter was constructed. It is the best surviving example of California's depot-hotels of the turn of the century.
Location: Santa Fe Depot, SW corner of First Ave and Riverside Dr, plaque located at Mojave River Museum, 270 E Virginia Way, Barstow

NO. 939 Twentieth Century Folk Art Environments (Thematic)-HULA VILLE ( Site of)- Miles Mahan began building Hula Ville in 1955 after retiring as a 'carny,' or carnival worker. Over the years, he put his statues and poems together in the desert, on Interstate 15 near Hesperia. Demolished 9/97
Location: On Amargosa Rd, 2.0 mi W of I-15 and Phelan Rd, 6 mi NW of Hesperia

NO. 939 Twentieth Century Folk Art Environments (Thematic)-POSSUM TROT - Calvin and Ruby Black began building Possum Trot in 1954 as an attraction for their rock shop as well as an artistic expression. Calvin carved the dolls, each representing someone important in his life, and Ruby made clothes for them. The animated displays were designed to entertain visitors.
Location: Ghost Town Rd, 1.5 mi N of I-15, 4 mi NW of Yermo

NO. 942 SITE OF THE RANCHO CHINO ADOBE OF ISAAC WILLIAMS Near this site, Isaac Williams in 1841 built a large adobe home, located on the 22,000-acre Rancho Chino which he acquired from his father-in-law Antonio Lugo. The 'Battle of Chino' occurred at the adobe on September 26-27, 1846, during which 24 Americans were captured by a group of about 50 Californios. Located on the Southern Immigrant Trail to California, the adobe later became an inn and stage stop famous for its hospitality.
Location: Chino Fire Station No. 2, 4440 Eucalyptus Ave, one block W of State Hwy 71 and Pipeline Ave, 3 mi SW of Chino

NO. 963 THE MOJAVE ROAD - Long ago, Mohave Indians used a network of pathways to cross the Mojave Desert. In 1826, American trapper Jedediah Smith used their paths and became the first non-Indian to reach the California coast overland from mid-America. The paths were worked into a military wagon road in 1859. This 'Mojave Road' remained a major link between Los Angeles and points east until a railway crossed the desert in 1885.
Location: Midway Rest Area, N-bound I-15, 30 mi NE of Barstow

NO. 963-1 CAMP CADY (ON THE MOJAVE ROAD) - Camp Cady was located on the Mojave Road which connected Los Angeles to Albuquerque. Non-Indian travel on this and the nearby Salt Lake Road was beset by Paiutes, Mohaves, and Chemehuevis defending their homeland. To protect both roads, Camp Cady was established by U.S. Dragoons in 1860. The main building was a stout mud redoubt. Improved camp structures were built 1/2 mile west in 1868. After peace was achieved, the military withdrew in 1871. This protection provided by Camp Cady enabled travelers, merchandise, and mail using both roads to boost California's economy and growth.
Location: 24 mi N of Barstow take Harvard Rd offramp from I-15, turn rt, go .8 mi to Cherokee Rd, turn left and go 2.5 mi and turn rt at second fence line. At end of dirt rd.

NO. 977 THE ARROWHEAD - Located in the foothills of the San Bernardino Mountains directly above the City of San Bernardino, the arrowhead landmark can be seen for miles around. This important landmark has for centuries been a symbol of the San Bernardino Valley to the Native Indians and then to the pioneers and settlers that followed. It is believed to be a natural landmark. The face of the arrowhead consists of light quartz, supporting a growth of short white sage. This lighter vegetation shows in sharp contrast to the surrounding chaparral and greasewood. Indians who inhabited the San Bernardino Valley believed that the arrowhead pointed the way to the hot mineral springs below, with healing qualities, and thus considered it holy ground. Through the years, numerous forest fires have caused some erosion. But the arrowhead landmark continues to preserve its uniqueness and remains a symbol of the 'pioneer spirit' of the San Bernardino Valley.
Location: N of softball field in Wildwood Park, at intersection of Waterman and 40th St, Hwy 18, San Bernardino

NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA-ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA (ESTABLISHED BY MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON, JR.) - CAMP IRON MOUNTAIN - Iron Mountain Divisional Camp was established at this site in the Spring of 1942. One of eleven such camps built in the California-Arizona Desert to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The first major unit trained here was the 3rd Armored Division followed by elements of the 4th, 5th, 6th, and 7th Armored Divisions. In all, one million men trained in the desert before the Training Center was officially closed in May of 1944. The most unique feature built at this camp is the huge relief map built into the desert floor. It can still be seen (1985).
Location: 45 mi E of Indio on I-10, take Hwy 177 N to right on Hwy 62, plaque is 5.4 mi 

NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA-ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA (ESTABLISHED BY MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON, JR.) - CAMP CLIPPER - Camp Clipper was established at a site that reached from Essex Road to this location in the Spring of 1942. It was one of twelve such camps built in the southwestern deserts to harden and train United States troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The Desert Training Center was a simulated theater of operations that included portions of California, Arizona, and Nevada. The other camps were Young, Coxcomb, Iron Mountain, Ibis, Granite, Pilot Knob, Laguna, Horn, Ryder, Bouse and Rice. A total of 13 infantry divisions and 7 armored divisions plus numerous smaller units were trained in this harsh environment. The Training Center was in operation for almost two years and was closed early in 1944 when the last units were shipped overseas. During the brief period of operation over one million American soldiers were trained for combat. The 33rd and 93rd Infantry Divisions were trained here.
Location: 37 mi W of Needles on I-40 and 115 mi E of Barstow at Fenner Rest Area eastbound

NO. 985 DESERT TRAINING CENTER, CALIFORNIA-ARIZONA MANEUVER AREA (ESTABLISHED BY MAJOR GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON, JR.) - CAMP IBIS - Camp Ibis was established at this site in the Spring of 1942-one of eleven such camps built in the California-Arizona Desert to harden and train United States Troops for service on the battlefields of World War II. The 440th AAA AW Battalion was activated per General Order No. 1 at Camp Haan, CA on July 1, 1942. It trained at Camp M.A.A.R. (Irwin), Camps Young, Iron Mountain, Ibis, and then Camps Pickett, VA and Steward, GA. The battalion shipped out to England in December 1943 and landed in Normandy on D-3. The unit earned 5 Battle Stars and 2 Foreign Awards while serving with the 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 9th U.S. Armies, the 1st French Army and the 2nd British Army, 7 different corps and 5 different divisions. The 440th AAA AW BN was deactivated in December 1944.
Location: 8 mi E of Needles on Hwy 40 go N on Hwy 95 1.9 mi

NO. 1028 MADONNA OF THE TRAIL - Dedicated in 1929, the Madonna of the Trail is one of twelve identical statues placed in twelve states by the National Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. The statues, differentiated by the inscriptions on their bases, commemorate the westward move of American civilization on a series of trails, which eventually linked the country from the Atlantic to the Pacific. They especially pay tribute to the importance of a national highway and the role of pioneer women. The statue was designed by German-born architectural sculptor August Leimbach and inspired by a statue of Sacagawea in Portland, Oregon. The Upland monument is said to represent four historic trails: the Mojave Trail, the de Anza Trail, the Emigrant Trail, and the Canyon Road.
Location: 1100 Block of North Euclid Avenue, Upland, CA

San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, Mono, Los Angeles & Riverside counties.

Los Angeles County

NO. 158 MISSION SAN GABRIEL ARCÁNGEL - The mission was founded September 8, 1771 by Padres Pedro Benito Cambon and Angel Fernández de la Somera. The present church building was begun during the latter part of the 18th century and completed in the year 1800.
Location: 537 W Mission Dr at Junipero St, San Gabriel USGS Quadrangle Sheet Name: EL MONTE
Listed on the National Register of Historic Places: NPS-71000158

NO. 168 OAK OF THE GOLDEN DREAM - Francisco López made California's first authenticated gold discovery on March 9, 1842. While gathering wild onions near an oak tree in Placerita Canyon he found gold particles clinging to the roots of the bulbs. The San Fernando placers and nearby San Feliciano Canyon were worked by Sonoran miners using panning, sluicing and dry washing methods. Lopez's find predated James Marshall strike at Sutter's Mill by six years.
Location: Site: Placerita Canyon State and County Park, Placerita Canyon Rd, 4.6 mi NE of Newhall (Los Angeles)
Plaque: SE corner I-5 and Lyons Ave, Newhall

NO. 169 DRUM BARRACKS - Established in 1862, Drum Barracks became the United States military headquarters for Southern California, Arizona, and New Mexico. It was a garrison and base for supplies, and a terminus for camel pack trains operated by the Army until 1863. Abandoned in 1866, the site remains a landmark of the Civil War in California.
Location: 1053 Cary St (corner Cary and Opp), Wilmington

NO. 301 LUGO ADOBE (SITE OF) - The Lugo Adobe, said to have been built in the 1840s by Don Vicente Lugo, was one of the very few two-story houses in the pueblo of Los Angeles. In 1867, Lugo donated this house on the Plaza to St. Vincent's School (forerunner of Loyola University). From the 1880s until it was razed in 1951, the building was occupied by the Chinese.
Location: El Pueblo de Los Angeles Historic Monument, SE corner Los Angeles and Alameda Sts, Los Angeles

NO. 556 RANCHO SAN FRANCISCO - Approximately one-half mile south of the point was the adobe headquarters of Rancho San Francisco, originally built about 1804 as a granary of Mission San Fernando. The rancho was granted to Antonio de Valle in 1839. Here, in January 1850, William Lewis Manly and John Rogers obtained supplies and animals to rescue their comrades in a California-bound gold-seeking emigrant party that was stranded and starving in Death Valley, some 250 miles to the northeast.
Location: SW corner of 'The Old Road' and Henry Mayo Drive, 0.2 mi S of I-5 and State Hwy 126 interchange, Valencia

NO. 632 OLD SHORT CUT - This is California's first ranger station, built in 1900 by Louie Newcomb and Phillip Begue, early Forest Service men. The cabin took its name from the 'Short Cut Canyon Trail,' as the cabin was one of the main stopping points on this trail.
Location: Angeles National Forest, Chilao Visitor's Center, Angeles Crest Hwy (State Hwy 2), 27 mi E of La Canada

Location: 2211 Bonita Dr, Glendale

NO. 646 GRAVE OF GEORGE CARALAMBO, (GREEK GEORGE) - This is the grave of 'Greek George,' a camel driver from Asia Minor who came to the United States with the second load of camels purchased by the War Department as an experiment to open a wagon road to Fort Tejón from Fort Defiance, New Mexico. Because of the Civil War, the experiment was abandoned. 'Greek George' became a naturalized citizen in 1867 under the name of George Allen. He built an adobe home on Santa Monica Boulevard.
Location: Founders' Memorial Park, Broadway at Gregory Ave, Whittier (gravestone in storage, 1993)

N0. 658 WESTERN HOTEL - Erected by the Gilroy family in 1876, this building was purchased in 1902 by George T. Webber, who operated it as teh Western Hotel. The Lancaster Chamber of Commerce was organized in its dining room. Between 1905 and 1913, construction crews of the Los Angeles-Owens River Aqueduct were housed here, and it became a center of commercial and social activity in the early life of the community.
Location: 557 W Lancaster Blvd, Lancaster

NO. 717 THE ANGELES NATIONAL FOREST - The first national forest in the State of California and second in the United States, Angeles National Forest was created by proclamation of President Benjamin Harrison on December 20, 1892. The first name given to the forest, "'San Gabriel Timberland Reserve," was changed to "San Gabriel National Forest"  March 4, 1907 and then to "Angeles National Forest" on July 1, 1908. The majority of the Forest is within Los Angeles County, with small sections extending into San Bernardino and Ventura counties.
Location: San Gabriel Mtns, Clear Creek vista point, State Hwy 2 (P.M. 32.8), 8.3 mi N of I-210, La Canada Flintridge

NO. 963 THE MOJAVE ROAD - Long ago, Mohave Indians used a network of pathways to cross the Mojave Desert. In 1826, American trapper Jedediah Smith used their paths and became the first non-Indian to reach the California coast overland from mid-America. The paths were worked into a military wagon road in 1859. This "Mojave Road" remained a major link between Los Angeles and points east until a railway crossed the desert in 1885.
Location: Site of road runs from Drum Barracks in Wilmington to where State Route 66 crosses Los Angeles County line into San Bernardino County.
San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, Mono, Los Angeles & Riverside counties.

Riverside County

NO. 20 PARENT WASHINGTON NAVEL ORANGE TREE - The tree was introduced into the United States from Bahia, Brazil, by the U.S. Department of Agriculture in 1870. Twelve young trees were received and buds from them were propagated on sweet orange seedlings. In 1873 two of these greenhouse-grown trees, which were distributed throughout the United States, were sent to Mrs. Eliza Tibbets in Riverside.
Location: City Park, SW corner of Magnolia and Arlington Sts, Riverside

NO. 101 GIANT DESERT FIGURES - Times of origin and meaning of these giant figures, the largest of which is 167 feet long and the smallest 95 feet, remain a mystery. There are three figures, two of animals and one of a coiled serpent, and some interesting lines. (Sandstone pebbles glazed on one side with 'desert varnish,' strewn over the surface of the mesa, have been moved away, leaving the earth forming the figures, the pebbles were placed in windrows about the edge as an outline.)
Location: On Hwy 95 (P.M. 15.3), 16 mi N of Blythe

NO. 104 SITE OF INDIAN VILLAGE OF POCHEA - Pochea was one of a cluster of Indian villages forming the very large settlement of Pahsitnah, which extended along the ridge east and west of Ramona Bowl. Pahsitnah was thriving when the Spanish first passed by in 1774. A tragic story tells of the natives contracting smallpox from Europeans, a terrible epidemic spreading, and some survivors fleeing to the area of the present Soboba Reservation.
Location: Ramona Bowl, 27400 S Girard St, Hemet, plaque located near restrooms

NO. 557 HEMET MAZE STONE - This pictograph, representing a maze, is an outstanding example of the work of prehistoric peoples. It, with 5.75 acres of land, was donated to Riverside County as a county park on April 16, 1956 by Mr. and Mrs. Rodger E. Miller.
Location: From State Hwy 74, go N 3.2 mi on California Ave to Maze Stone Park, Hemet

NO. 749 SAAHATPA - Chief Juan Antonio and his band of Cahuilla Indians helped white settlers in the San Bernardino area defend their property and livestock against outlaws during the 1840s and 1850s. In late 1851, Juan Antonio, his warriors and their families, settled at nearby Saahatpa. During the winter of 1862-63, a smallpox epidemic swept through Southern California killing many Native Americans, including Juan Antonio. Cahuilla tradition asserts that the U.S. Government sent Army blankets that were contaminated with smallpox. After this disaster, Saahatpa was abandoned.
Location: Brookside Rest Area, W-bound I-10, 3 mi W of junction of I-10 and Hwy 60

NO. 1009 RAMONA BOWL, SITE OF THE RAMONA PAGEANT - Within this valley was laid part of the scene, and here resided a number of the characters portrayed in Helen Hunt Jackson's historical novel, 'Ramona,' which depicted life and presented the status of the Indians on many great ranchos in early California beginning around the 1850s. The story, dramatized by the late Garnet Holme, was first presented on this site April 13, 1923, becoming an annual event.
Location: 27400 Ramona Bowl Rd, Hemet

San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, Mono, Los Angeles & Riverside counties.

Kern County


NO. 97 OAK CREEK PASS - In 1776, Father Francisco Garces used the Oak Creek Pass to return to the Mojave after exploring the San Joaquin Valley, as did Fremont in 1844-1845. Until the railroad was built through the Tehachapi Pass in 1876, Oak Creek Pass was the only route used through the Tehachapi Mountains.
Location: On Willow Pass Rd, 4.6 mi S of Tehachapi Blvd, 74 mi SE of Tehachapi

NO. 98 KEYSVILLE - From 1853 until 1870, Keysville was a center of both placer and quartz gold mining. On the knoll just below the townsite may still be seen the outlines of an earthworks fort, built to meet a possible Indian attack in 1863.
Location: On Black Gulch Rd, 2.0 mi S of State Hwy 155 (P.M. 70.0), 3.3 mi W of Lake IsabelIa

NO. 99 WALKER'S PASS - Discovered by Joseph R. Walker, American trailblazer, who left the San Joaquin Valley through this pass in 1834. This area was traversed by topographer Edward M. Kern, after whom the Kern River was named, while accompanying the Fremont expedition of 1845. After 1860 it became a mining freight route to Owens Valley.
Location: At summit on State Hwy 178 (P.M. 79.8), 8.4 mi NW of Freeman Jct (State Hwy 14)

NO. 100 HAVILAH - Gold deposits at Havilah were discovered in 1864. Havilah was the county seat between 1866, when Kern County was organized, and 1872, when the government was moved to Bakersfield. Havilah was an active mining center for more than 20 years, and there are still some operating mines in this vicinity.
Location: State plaque in front of Bodfish post office, NE corner of Miller St and Kern River Canyon Rd, Bodfish - private plaque S side of 1866 county courthouse, Caliente-Bodfish Rd (P.M. 279), Havilah

NO. 129 FORT TEJON -This military post was established by the United States Army on June 24, 1854, to suppress stock rustling and protect the Indians in the San Joaquin Valley. Camels for transportation were introduced here in 1858. As regimental headquarters of the First Dragoons, Fort Tejon was an important military, social, and political center - it was abandoned September 11, 1864.
Location: Fort Tejon State Historic Park, on Lebec Rd, 2.8 mi N of Lebec

NO. 130 WILLOW SPRINGS - Willow Springs was visited by Padre Garces in 1776 while following the old Horse Thief Trail (later known as Joe Walker Trail) - Fremont stopped here in 1844, and the famished Jayhawk Party of 1850 found water here while struggling from Death Valley to Los Angeles. Still later, Willow Springs was a stage station of the Los Angeles-Havilah and Inyo Stage Lines.
Location: From State Hwy 14, go 6.8 mi W on Rosamond Blvd, then N 0.7 mi on Tehachapi Willow Springs Rd, then 0.6 mi NW on Truman-Manly Rd, Rosamond

NO. 132 KERNVILLE - Called Whiskey Flat until 1864, Kernville was founded in 1860 when whiskey dealer Adam Hamilton moved shop here from more temperate Quartzburg, founded earlier that year. Both camps resulted from a discovery by 'Lovely' Rogers, who found the Big Blue Ledge while tracking a stray mule from the earlier camp of Keysville.
Location: Old Kernville Cemetery, Wofford Rd, 2.7 mi SE of Kernville

NO. 133 SEBASTIAN INDIAN RESERVATION - The Sebastian or Tejon Indian Reservation (headquarters ten miles east of here) was established in 1853 by General Edward Fitzgerald Beale as one of several California reservations. The number of Indians quartered here varied from 500 to 2,000. General Beale acquired title to this area under Mexican land grant of 1843. In 1864 the U.S. government transferred the Indians to other reservations.
Location: Grapevine, NE corner of Grapevine Rd and 'D' St, 70 mi S of Mettler

NO. 137 GORDON'S FERRY ON THE KERN RIVER - Gordon's Ferry was an overhead cable-type of ferry operated during the 1850s by Major Gordon. An adobe station house was located on the south bank of the Kern River, just a few yards to the west of this marker, which also served as a station on the Butterfield Overland Mail Route from 1856 to 1860.
Location: SE side of Kern River bridge, on China Loop, 1,000 ft S of Round Mountain Rd, Bakersfield

NO. 277 GARCES CIRCLE - This is the approximate site of the Indian rancheria visited by Franciscan friar Padre Francisco Garces on May 7, 1776. Padre Garces named this spot San Miguel de los Noches por el Santa Príncipe.
Location: Center intersection of Chester Ave and 30th St, Bakersfield

NO. 278 PLACE WHERE FRANCISCO GARCÉS CROSSED THE KERN RIVER - On May 1, 1776, Franciscan friar Francisco Garces crossed the Kern River one mile north of here. Searching for a shorter route from Sonora, Mexico to Monterey, California, he was the first known explorer to describe this river, which he named Río de San Felipe.
Location: State Hwy 178 (P.M. 10.9) at Rancheria Rd, 11.0 mi E of Bakersfield

NO. 283 TOP OF GRAPEVINE PASS, WHERE DON PEDRO FAGES PASSED IN 1772 - In 1772, Don Pedro Fages passed this site, traveling from San Diego to San Luis Obispo via Cajón Pass, Mojave Desert, Hughes Lake, Antelope Valley, Tejón Pass, Cañada de los Uvas (Grapevine Canyon), and Buena Vista Lake. He left the first written record of exploration in the south San Joaquin Valley.
Location: On Lebec Rd, 0.6 mi N of Lebec

NO. 291 FAGES-ZALVIDEA CROSSING - In 1772, Don Pedro Fages, first recorded non-Indian to visit the southern San Joaquin Valley, crossed this spot on his way from San Diego to San Luis Obispo. Near this point crossed Father Jose María de Zalvidea in 1806, while accompanying the Ruiz expedition in search of mission sites.
Location: On State Hwy 166 (P.M. 19.0), 5.5 mi W of Mettler

NO. 371 OUTERMOST POINT IN THE SOUTH SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY (VISITED BY PADRE GARCÉS IN 1776) - Padre Garces, first recorded non-Indian to visit this locality, came in April of 1776, seeking a new route from Mexico to California. His epic journey covered more than two thousand miles of uncharted wilderness, opening trails that later became highways and railroads.
Location: Courtyard of Saint Thomas the Apostle Church, 350 E Bear Mountain Blvd, Arvin

NO. 374 TULAMNIU INDIAN SITE - The old Yokuts village of Tulamniu was named Buena Vista by Spanish Commander Fages in 1772. Fr. Zalvidea again recorded the site in 1806. This village was occupied for several centuries, and in 1933-34 its site was excavated by the Smithsonian Institution.
Location: 300 ft SE of Block House #BV4, 1.1 mi N of Buena Vista pumping station, 8 mi E of Taft

NO. 457 INDIAN WELLS - After five days' travel from the Argus Range, the Manly-Jayhawker parties of 1849 found their first water at this Indian waterhole on the Joseph R. Walker Trail of 1843. During the 1860s, this was the site of a stage and freight station for traffic between Los Angeles and the Coso and Cerro Gordo Mines.
Location: Indian Wells Lodge, 4.9 mi N of Freeman Jct (Hwys 14 and 178) on Hwy 14 (P.M. 62.6)

NO. 476 DESERT SPRING - This spring was on an old Indian horse thief trail and later (1834) Joe Walker Trail. The famished Manly-Jayhawk Death Valley parties (1849-50) were revived here after coming from Indian Wells through Last Chance Canyon. This was also a station on the Nadeau Borax Freight Road.
Location: SE corner Pappas Ranch, on Pappas Rd, then walk 1/4 mi W toward trees, 0.5 mi S of Valley Rd, 3.7 mi E of Cantil post office

NO. 492 BUTTONWILLOW TREE - This lone tree, which gave the town of Buttonwillow its name, served as a landmark on an old trans-valley trail. An ancient Yokuts Indian meeting place, it later became the site of settlers' stock rodeos. Miller and Lux established their headquarters and store here about 1885.
Location: On Buttonwillow Dr, 0.5 mi N of State Hwy 58, Buttonwillow

NO. 508 TEHACHAPI LOOP - From this spot may be seen a portion of the world-renowned Loop completed in 1876 under the direction of William Hood, Southern Pacific railroad engineer. In gaining elevation around the central hill of the Loop, a 4,000-foot train will cross 77 feet above its rear cars in the tunnel below.
Location: On Old State Hwy, 3.2 mi E of Keene exit, 6.5 mi W of Tehachapi

NO. 631 GARCES BAPTISMAL SITE - Three miles north of this point was the site of the first recorded Christian baptism in the San Joaquin Valley. On May 23, 1776, Padre Francisco Garces, earliest non-Indian in this area, baptized an Indian boy whom he called Muchachito at a Yokuts Rancheria in Grizzly Gulch.
Location: On State Hwy 155 (P.M. 18.8), 77 mi W of Woody

NO. 643 OLD TOWN (TEHACHAPI) - The oldest settlement in Tehachapi Valley, known as 'Old Town,' was established here during the 1860s. Long an important station on the road between Southern California and the San Joaquin Valley, the community began to decline when residents gradually moved to nearby Greenwich, later renamed Tehachapi, after completion of the Southern Pacific Railroad in 1876.
Location: NE corner of Old Town Rd and Woodford-Tehachapi Rd, 1.3 mi N of State Hwy 202, 2.5 mi W of Tehachapi .

NO. 652 20-MULE-TEAM BORAX TERMINUS - Just west of this point was the Southern Pacific terminus for the 20-mule-team borax wagons that operated between Death Valley and Mojave from 1884 to 1889. The route ran from the Harmony Borax Mining Company works, later acquired by the Pacific Coast Borax Company, to the railroad loading dock in Mojave over 165 miles of mountain and desert trail. A round trip required 20 days. The ore wagons, which hauled a payload of 24 tons, were designed by J. W. S. Perry, Borax Company superintendent in Death Valley, and built in Mojave at a cost of $900 each. New borax discoveries near Barstow ended the Mojave shipments in 1889.
Location: 16246 Sierra Hwy (Hwy 14), Mojave

NO. 660 POINT ON THE JEDEDIAH SMITH TRAIL - About February 1, 1827, Jedediah Strong Smith, first American to reach Mexican California overland, passed near this spot with his party of fur trappers. From San Gabriel Mission, the group was en route north to a land reported teeming with 'plenty of Beaver.' Smith and his men were trailblazers whose exploits soon led to the American conquest of California.
Location: SE corner of Old Bena and Tower Line Rds, 3.6 mi E of Edison

NO. 671 SITE OF THE TOWN OF GARLOCK - In 1896, Eugene Garlock constructed a stamp mill near this spot to crush gold ore from the Yellow Aster Mine on Rand Mountain. Known originally as Cow Wells by prospectors and freighters during the 1880s and early 1890s, the town of Garlock continued to thrive until 1898, when water was piped from here to Randsburg and the Kramer-Randsburg rail line was completed.
Location: 74 mi W of State Hwy 395 on Garlock Rd, 13.4 mi NE of Cantil post office

NO. 672 LAVERS CROSSING - In 1854, John C. Reid filed a squatter's claim on this spot - the same year Kern County's first school class was held here. In 1859, David Lavers, with his father and brother, John, built a hotel and stage barn on the old Bull Road. The crossing was the principal community in Linn's Valley until about 1870.
Location: NE corner of White River and Jack Ranch Rds, 1.1 mi W of Glennville

NO. 690 SITE OF THE LAST HOME OF ALEXIS GODEY - Near this site stood the home of Alexis Godey, frontiersman and scout, who lived here from 1883 until his death on January 19, 1889. Born in St. Louis, Missouri in 1818, he acted as guide for John C. Fremont's expedition through the Kern area in 1843-44, and was honored for his services at the Battle of San Pasqual in 1846.
Location: 414-19th St W of Union Ave, Bakersfield

NO. 741 BEALVILLE - Edward Fitzgerald Beale, serving under Commodore Stockton in 1846, established his home here on Rancho le Libre in 1855. He also engaged in mining and became Superintendent of Indian Affairs for California and Nevada, and Minister to Vienna.
Location: On Bealville Rd, 0.9 mi N of State Hwy 58, 1.3 mi S of Caliente

NO. 742 CAMPSITE OF EDWARD M. KERN - Near this spot at the confluence of the north and south forks of the Kern River, the Theodore Talbot party of Captain John C. Fremont's third expedition to the West camped for several weeks during December 1845 and January 1846. Fremont named the river in honor of Edward M. Kern, topographer for the expedition - Kern County was established in 1866.
Location: Entrance to Old IsabelIa Rd Recreation Area, on State Hwy 178, 2 mi N of the town of Lake IsabelIa

NO. 757 CALIENTE - Originally known as Allen's Camp after Gabriel Allen, who in the 1870s had a cabin and stock pasture near here, the settlement was named Caliente when railroad construction reached this point in April 1875. The town became a railroad terminal for about 16 months while a force of up to three thousand men, most of them Chinese, labored on the heavy railroad construction on the mountain.
Location: 2.3 mi N of Hwy 58 on Bealville Rd, Caliente

NO. 766 FREEMAN JUNCTION - Explorer Joseph R. Walker passed this junction of Indian trails in 1834 after discovering nearby Walker Pass. After their escape from Death Valley, '49er parties split here to go west and south to the California gold fields. Here the bandit Tiburcio Vasquez preyed on stages and freighters traveling between the Kern River mines and Los Angeles and the mines of Bodie and the Panamints.
Location: On State Hwy 178 (P.M. 88.0), 0.2 mi W of junction with State Hwy 14

NO. 938 RAND MINING DISTRICT - The Yellow Aster, or Rand, mine was discovered in April 1895 by Singleton, Burcham, and Mooers. The town of Randsburg quickly developed, followed by the supply town of Johannesburg in 1896. Both names were adopted from the profusion of minerals resembling those of the ranch mining district in South Africa. In 1907, Churchill discovered tungsten in Atolia, used in steel alloy during World War I. In June 1919, Williams and Nosser discovered the famous California Rand Silver Mine at Red Mountain.
Location
: Kern Co Desert Museum, Butte Ave, Randsburg

NO. 1054 TOMO-KAHNI Winter Village in the Kawaiisu language, is a late prehistoric/protohistoric site affiliated with the Kawaiisu and is located in the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains near Tehachapi, California. A number of features have been recorded at the site, including food processing areas with bedrock mortars, milling slicks, rock art panels on boulders and within shelters or caves, and concentrated deposits of artifacts. Tomo-Kahni State Historic Park became a unit of California State Parks in 1993. Due to the extremely sensitive nature of the site, Tomo-Kahni is available to the public by tour only.
Location: Tours meet at 310 S. Green Street at East E Street, Tehachapi

San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, Mono, Los Angeles & Riverside counties.

Inyo County

NO. 208 SAN FRANCIS RANCH - In 1861, Samuel A. Bishop, his wife, and party left Fort Tejon for the Owens Valley driving 650 head of stock. On August 22, Bishop reached a creek later named for him and southwest of this spot. San Francis Ranch was established there. At the site a peace treaty was signed by the settlers and the chiefs of the Paiute Indians.
Location: 3 mi SW of Bishop at intersection of Red Hill Rd and State Hwy 168

NO. 209 SITE OF BEND CITY - Bend City, a population center in the middle 1860s, was designated as the seat of Coso County, but the county was never formed. It was here that the first county bridge across Owens River was constructed. The 1872 earthquake changed the course of Owens River, so the site of Bend City was near an empty ravine instead of on a river bank.
Location: On Mazourka Canyon Rd, 4.6 mi E of Independence

NO. 211 MAYFIELD CANYON BATTLEGROUND - On April 8, 1862, a body of troopers and settlers entered Mayfield Canyon (named for one of the settlers) to fight the Indians supposed to be there. However, the Indians had evacuated the canyon so the group made camp at its mouth. The next day they went up the canyon again, but this time they were forced to retreat to Owens Valley.
Location: Mayfield Canyon, 0.2 mi N of Farmer Wells Meadow Ranger Station, 1.5 mi NW from intersection of Pine Creek Rd and North Round Valley Rd, then 1.5 mi N on Ranger Station Rd to site, 15 mi NW of Bishop

NO. 223 SITE OF PUTNAM'S CABIN - In August 1861, Charles Putnam built the first cabin for permanent habitation in what is now Inyo County. The building, located 130 feet west of this site, served as a home, trading post, hospital, and 'fort' for early settlers, as well as a survival point for travelers. It became the center of the settlement of 'Putnam's' which five years later took the name 'Independence.'
Location: 139 Edwards St (Hwy 395), Independence

NO. 229 MARY AUSTIN'S HOME - Mary Austin, author of The Land of Little Rain and other volumes that picture the beauty of Owens Valley, lived in Independence. "But if ever you come beyond the borders as far as the town that lies in a hill dimple at the foot of Kearsarge, never leave it until you have knocked at the door of the brown house under the willow-tree at the end of the village street, and there you shall have such news of the land, of its trails and what is astir in them, as one lover of it can give to another . . ." excerpt from The Land of Little Rain.
Location: 253 Market St, Independence

NO. 230 FIRST PERMANENT WHITE HABITATION IN OWENS VALLEY - In August of 1861, A. Van Fleet and three other men drove their cattle into Owens Valley and prepared to stay. A cabin of sod and stone was built at the big bend of the Owens River at the northern end of the valley.
Location: At intersection of State Hwy 6 (P.M. 3.9) and Silver Canyon Rd, 4 mi NE of Bishop

No. 349 CAMP INDEPENDENCE (FORT) -  At the request of settlers, Colonel George Evans led a military expedition to this site on July 4, 1862. Hence its name 'Independence.' Indian hostilities ceased and the camp closed. War again broke out in 1865 and the camp was reoccupied as Fort Independence until its abandonment in 1877. This fort made possible the early settlements in the Owens Valley.
Location: 500 ft W of intersection of Miller Ln and Salvabell Ln, 3 mi NE of Independence

NO. 441 BURNED WAGONS POINT - Near this monument, the Jayhawker group of Death Valley '49ers, gold seekers from the Middle West who entered Death Valley in 1849 seeking a short route to the mines of central California, burned their wagons, dried the meat of some oxen and, with surviving animals, struggled westward on foot.
Location: Death Valley National Monument, 100 ft S of State Hwy 190 (P.M. 85.9), Stovepipe Wells

NO. 442 DEATH VALLEY GATEWAY - Through this natural gateway the Death Valley '49ers, more than 100 emigrants from the Middle West seeking a shortcut to gold fields of central California, entered Death Valley in December 1849. All suffered from thirst and starvation. Seeking an escape from the region, two contingents went southwest from here, while the others proceeded northwest.
Location: Death Valley National Monument, on State Hwy 190 (P.M. 111.8), 1.3 mi SE of Furnace Creek

NO. 443 VALLEY WELLS - In this area, several groups of midwestern emigrants who had escaped from hazards and privations in Death Valley in 1849 sought to secure water from Searles Lake. They turned northward and westward in despair when they discovered its salty nature, and with great difficulty crossed the Argus and other mountains to reach settlements of Central and Southern California.
Location: Trona Wildrose Rd at Valley Wells Rd, 5.5 mi NE of Trona

NO. 444 BENNETT-ARCANE LONG CAMP - Near this spot the Bennett-Arcane contingent of the Death Valley '49ers, emigrants from the Middle West seeking a shortcut to California gold fields, were stranded for a month and almost perished from starvation. William Lewis Manley and John Rogers, young members of the party, made a heroic journey on foot to San Fernando and, returning with supplies, led the party to the safety of San Francisquito Rancho near Newhall.
Location: Death Valley National Monument from State Hwy 190 (P.M. 111.8), go approx 16 mi S of intersection of Badwater Rd and Westside Rd, on Westside Rd

NO. 507 GRAVE OF 1872 EARTHQUAKE VICTIMS- On March 26, 1872, a major earthquake shook Owens Valley, nearly destroying the town of Lone Pine. About fourteen of its victims (the exact number is not known) were interred in a common grave, enclosed by this fence.
Location: 200 ft W of State Hwy 395 (P.M. 58. 7), 0.9 mi N of Lone Pine

NO. 537 COTTONWOOD CHARCOAL KILNS - In June 1873, on Cottonwood Creek directly west of this spot, Colonel Sherman Stevens built a sawmill and a flume that connected with the Los Angeles bullion road. The lumber was used for timbering in the mine and for buildings - the wood turned into charcoal in the kilns was hauled to Steven's Wharf on Owens Lake, where it was put on the steamer The Bessie Brady, and hauled across the lake. From there wagons took it up to Cerro Gordo Mine. Since all the wood available around the Cerro Gordo had been burned, this charcoal was necessary to continue production.
Location: 1.0 mi E of State Hwy 395 (P.M. 44.5), 70 mi N of Cartago

NO. 752.  FURNACE OF THE OWENS LAKE SILVER-LEAD COMPANY - The Owens Lake Silver-lead furnace and mill were built here by Colonel Sherman Stevens in 1869 and used until March 1874. James Brady assumed their operation in 1870 for the Silver-Lead Company and built the town of Swansea. During the next few years the output of this furnace and one at Cerro Gordo was around 150 bars of silver, each weighing 83 pounds, every 24 hours. 
Location:  300 ft W of State Hwy 136 (P.M. 9.5), 3.1 mi NW of Keeler

No. 773 OLD HARMONY BORAX WORKS - In 1881 Aaron Winters discovered borax on the marsh near this point. He later sold his holdings to W. T. Coleman of San Francisco, who built the Harmony Borax Works in 1882 and commissioned his superintendent, J. W. S. Perry, to design wagons and locate a suitable route to Mojave. The work of gathering the ore (called 'cottonball') was done by Chinese workmen. From this point, 20-mule teams transported the processed borax 165 miles to the railroad until 1889.
Location: Death Valley National Monument, on State Hwy 190 (P.M. 109.1), 1.4 mi N of Furnace Creek

NO. 796 FARLEY'S OLANCHA MILL SITE - In 1860, while working for the Silver Mountain Mining Company in the Coso Mountains, M. H. Farley conceived the idea of building a processing mill on a creek that flowed into Owens Lake. He explored and named Olancha Pass that year, and by December of 1862 had completed the first mill and furnace in the Owens River Valley, on Olancha Creek about one mile west of this marker.
Location: On State Hwy 395 (P.M. 34.1), at Fall Rd, 0.6 mi S of Olancha

NO. 811 BISHOP CREEK BATTLEGROUND - On April 6, 1862, a battle took place around this site between newly arrived citizens of the Owens River Valley and the original inhabitants of the land, the Paiute and Shoshone Indians. The reason for this battle is lost but brave men on both sides died here for a cause which they held inviolate.
Location: SE corner of the intersection of State Hwy 168 (P.M. 13.0) and Bishop Creek Rd, 5.2 mi SW of Bishop

NO. 826 OLD STOVEPIPE WELLS - This waterhole, the only one in the sand dune area of Death Valley, was at the junction of the two Indian trails. During the bonanza days of Rhyolite and Skidoo, it was the only known water source on the cross-valley road. When sand obscured the spot, a length of stovepipe was inserted as a marker.
Location: Death Valley National Monument, from State Hwy 190 (P.M. 92.1) go N 2.8 mi on (unpaved) Sand Dunes Access Rd, 6.1 mi E of Stovepipe Wells

NO. 848 EICHBAUM TOLL ROAD - In 1926, H. W. Eichbaum obtained a franchise for a toll road from Darwin Falls to Stovepipe Wells, the first maintained road into Death Valley from the west. It changed the area's economic base from mining to tourism and brought about the creation of Death Valley National Monument seven years later.
Location: Death Valley National Monument, 100 ft S of State Hwy 190 (P.M. 85.83), Stovepipe Wells

NO. 953 LAWS NARROW GAUGE RAILROAD STATION AND YARD - In 1883, the Carson & Colorado Railroad was built between Mound House (near Carson City, Nevada) through Laws to Keeler, California, a distance of 300 miles. Laws Station was named in honor of Mr. R. J. Laws, Assistant Superintendent of the railroad. Between 1883 and about 1915, this railroad provided the only dependable means of transportation in and out of Owens Valley. Train service was stopped on April 30, 1960.
Location: On Silver Canyon Rd (Inyo County Rd), on old town of Laws, 4 mi NE of Bishop

San Bernardino, Kern, Inyo, Los Angeles, Riverside.

Mono County

NO. 341 BODIE - Gold was discovered here in 1859 by Wm. S. Bodey, after whom the town was named, and the town became the most thriving metropolis of the Mono country. Bodie's mines produced gold valued at more than 100 million dollars. Today a state park, Bodie is one of the best known of the west's 'ghost towns.'
Location: Bodie State Historic Park, on State Hwy 270, 12.8 mi E of State Hwy 395 (P.M. 69.8), 19.8 mi SE of Bridgeport

NO. 792 DOG TOWN - Site of the first major gold rush to the eastern slope of California's Sierra Nevada, Dog Town derived its name from a popular miners' term for camps with huts or hovels. Ruins lying close to the cliff bordering Dog Town Creek are all that remain of the makeshift dwellings which formed part of the 'diggins' here.
Location: On State Hwy 395 (P.M. 69.5), 7 mi S of Bridgeport

NO. 995-1 TRAIL OF THE JOHN C. FREMONT 1884 EXPEDITION - In 1844, while exploring and mapping the area of what is presently the western United States, Lt. John C. Fremont's party passed through northern Mono Countyduring the last week of January. After passing through Mono County, Fremont passed over the Sierra and travelled to Sutter's Fort in the Sacramento Valley, where the party rested. To leave California the expedition headed south through the San Joaquin Valley, and then headed easterly to leave California by the Old Spanish Trail to Utah.
Location: Big Bend-Mountain Gate area, Toiyabe National Forest, Bridgeport


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